A computer network is a system of computers that are interconnected. They communicate with one another over a variety of protocols, including the internet protocol (IP), local area network protocol (LAN), and wide area network protocol (WAN). This article will discuss how Ethernet cables work, what types there are, their performance specifications, and pinout for each type, you can try 10 of these Ethernet cables anytime.
Ethernet Cable Designs
Ethernet cable types are categorized by their speed, performance specifications and connector type. Cables have typically been designated with the letter “C” followed by a number designating which category they fall under based on standardization of Ethernet speeds. The following list details these categories:
The designation for each type usually starts off as an “E” (for example, E1000) and ends in one of the aforementioned numbers.
Cat-x cables utilize insulation displacement connectors (IDCs), where pins inside them pierce through insulated wires and make contact with bare copper conductors to create electrical connections without stripping or soldering individual wires together first. IDCs require less physical strain during installation than other cabling options such as Cat-x and Cat-z.
The data transmission performance of Ethernet cables is measured in categories such as 1000BASE-T, which refers to the maximum bandwidth (in Mbps) that it supports over a single cable run. The T stands for twisted pair cabling standards such as IEEE 802. When selecting an Ethernet cable, ensure that the type you purchase has at least matching speeds with your network devices to avoid bottlenecking or bottoming out on speed while transferring large amounts of information across the network:
Types Of Ethernet Cables
v 1000 BASE – T Gigabit Ethernet: 100Mb/s (~125ft), 200 Mb/s (~300ft), 300 Mb/s (~500ft); up to 500m when running full duplex mode.
v 1000 BASE – T: 100Mb/s (~150ft), 200 Mb/s (~300ft); up to 500m when running full duplex mode.
v 100BASE-T: 100Mb/s, ~15 m (or within the length of a CAT-cable) with performance degradation at every additional meter; often used for home networks or as patch cables in computer networking applications.
v 125E / 155 MT – E: 1000BASE – SX 525 Mbps, 550m over multi strand fiber optic cable .
v 155MBASETX: 1000Mbps and 220 meters on Multi Strand Fiber Optic Cable. Can be extended using an Ethernet booster or amplifier if necessary.
v 165 MBASETX: 1000Mbps and 300 meters on Multi Strand Fiber Optic Cable. Can be extended using an Ethernet booster or amplifier if necessary.
v 1000BASE – CX: 100Mb/s, ~25 m (or within the length of a CAT-cable) with performance degradation at every additional meter; often used for industrial networking applications such as factory automation systems .
v 300m on Multi-strand fiber optic cable. Can be extended up to 500 meters using an Ethernet booster or amplifier if needed.
v 100 BASE – TX: 100 Mb/s (~50ft), 200 Mb/s (~70ft); up to 185m when running full duplex mode .
v The pinout for each different type of Ethernet cable varies slightly. The following section will describe the pinout for each type of cable with emphasis on Cat-x and higher categories, as these are more commonly used in PC networking:
v Cat – x cables utilize a total of eight (or nine) wires consisting of four twisted wire pairs to create two separate circuits: one circuit for transmitting data and another for receiving data. Each pair consists of a solid core conductor surrounded by insulation; this design prevents crosstalk between adjacent conductors at high frequencies such as those found in Ethernet systems.
The performance of an Ethernet cable is determined by its category, or specification. There are six types of cables defined in the standard: Cat-0 to Cat-VI. The higher the number designation, the better quality and performance your cabling will have; however, a lower level can be used if it meets all required specifications according to which you’re setting up your network. The following list describes each type from lowest grade to highest:
v Cat – 0 : This is a very basic cabling design that consists only of two wire pairs with no shielding .
v Cat – I : Is similar to cat-0 but also has additional insulation around paired conductors . It was designed for voice frequencies rather than data networks .
v Cat – II : Also called “foam”, includes insulation surrounding all eight wire pairs. It is designed for frequencies up to 16 MHz .
v Cat – III : Consists of stranded center conductors and polyethylene or Teflon dielectric materials that are surrounded by braided strands of copper , aluminum alloy foil shield with 100% coverage, plus an overall woven jacket . It was designed for use in the telephone industry at voice frequencies.
v Cat – IV: Also known as pre- Cat- cabling; consists of stranded center conductors and a high density polyethylene (HDPE) dielectric material which insulates each pair along with two layers shielding consisting of aluminum foil wrapped around the entire cable core followed by one layer of braided copper . It was designed for use in the telephone industry at voice frequencies.
v Cat – V : Consists of stranded center conductors and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) dielectric material that insulates each pair along with two layers of shielding consisting of aluminum foil wrapped around the entire cable core followed by one layer of braided copper. Cat-V cabling is rated for data transmission up to 20 MHz, but it has not been widely adopted due to its high cost compared to other grades.
v The most common type used today are Cat-VI, which consists of four twisted wire pairs plus an overall shield made from aluminum braid or another corrosion resistant alloy such as copper/nickel or tinned copper braid . Cat -VI was designed for use in the telephone industry at voice frequencies.